Review of Related Literature

General Literature on Marketing Library Services

In her book Marketing and Public Relations for Libraries, Cosette Kies discusses various approaches to promoting library services to the community. She writes on the practice of marketing and concludes that it is necessary to create a demand for library services. Once this demand for library services is established and proven to funding agencies, more resources may be made available to ensure the continuation of said services (Keis 87). She also comes to the conclusion that in order to most effectively market services to the public, the expertise of marketing professionals must be utilized (177). Darlene Weigand in Market/Planning Library and Information Services suggests that libraries begin a marketing strategy by considering three steps outline in her book (36-37). The first step is a needs assessment which attempts to clarify client needs both expressed and unexpressed (36). The second step is a community analysis which is an in-depth examination of a community profile (36). The final step is a marketing audit which is a comprehensive analysis of the previous two steps (37). Both books were written in 1987 and are dated approaches to the general marketing of library services. They will contribute to this study by providing a glimpse of what marketing strategies were over twenty years ago. In combination with the new sources examined, they will be essential in demonstrating how marking techniques have changed

The journal article Marketing Public Library Services: The Gap Between Theory and Reality in Britain offers a case study of how libraries located in Newcastle and Liverpool construct marketing strategies according to theory and how effectively they adhere to these methods. The study reaffirms Weigand's conclusion that a marketing audit is essential in planning a strategy to promote library services (paragraph 19). In direct study of the two British libraries the author discovered that the use of posters, leaflets, and bookmarks were used. In addition one library had a regularly published newsletter. A good relationship with the press was essential because it was found that public libraries rarely had the funding for advertizing. (paragraphs 33-37) The conclusion that the author suggests is that libraries that have ignored formulating a specific marketing plan have placed themselves in jeopardy of becoming obsolete. She states that "quantifiable objectives should be set and methods devised for analysis" (paragraph 48). This study is of value to this research project because it evaluates the marketing techniques of specific libraries and addresses marketing methods used in real examples.

Samuel Adeyoyin advocates for librarians to change their marketing strategy. He contends that libraries are not-for-profit agencies and should adopt the same marketing techniques as these organizations (Adeyoyin 505). He justifies his argument by listing the marketing objectives of not-for-profit agencies and comparing them to the goals of libraries (502). A major similarity he stresses is a strong focus on public education. Instead of serving a single client group with specific needs like a business a library, like a not-for-profit agency serves multiple publics. Profit is not the ultimate goal of the library and as such is subject to public scrutiny of tax-payers and should avoid controversy. (502) Adeyoyin's article is of value to this research topic because it suggests alternate perspectives in the goals of marketing library services and how it should be considered when drafting a promotional plan. Dinesh Gupta agrees with Adeyoyin's sentiment and states that library marketing has seen a deliberate change to adopt not-for-profit marketing techniques (Gupta ed. 7). Gupta states this observation in the opening article of a book titled Marketing Library and Information Services: International Perspectives. The monograph offers current articles authored by librarians from a variety of different cultures. This is of value to this study because different perspectives may be offered in literature originating from other nations with a large immigrant population. One particular article focuses on providing services to refugee children which has a direct relevance to this research topic (Gupta ed. 325-334).

In her short article titled The Long Tail: It's Implications for Marketing Library Services Deborah Lee writes of a recent innovative marketing theory created by Chris Anderson. It explains that companies like Netflix and Amazon keep a large storage of items in order to appeal to online shoppers who are seeking a superior choice in selection. Important to these companies' sustainability is the ability to find their items in a timely manner. Brick and mortar stores cannot adopt this marketing scheme because they are more reliant on convenience than choice. Her conclusion is that libraries should consider the long tail marketing strategy because their vast collections and superior organizational methods seem to fit the pattern of the scheme. (Lee 93) Zuzana Helinsky's book published in 2008, titled A short-cut to Marketing the Library, offers a modern how-to guide for library administrators. The author demonstrates the importance of using modern software in promoting library services. Examples of software included are social software, open source software, mobile information devices, Second Life, wireless technology, mashups, and streaming media. These two sources offer examples of how technology has affected marketing strategies in the twenty-first century. Neglecting the role of technology in reaching new immigrant populations is detrimental to the goals of libraries.

Marketing Strategies to Immigrants

Maria Gavier and Sarah Scoby offer specific examples of marketing programs being offered to this study's client group in their Colorado library. They list initiatives by librarians to extend their influence beyond the four walls of the library by marketing to churches, neighborhoods, community centers, and schools with a high concentration of Hispanic people Gavier & Scoby 13). Their library also took advantage of partnering with bilingual schools and Hispanic authors to raise their profile in the community (13). Programs pioneered by the library include Hispanic Heritage which highlights the libraries Spanish language history collection. Similar events are hosted for people of African American, Asian, and Aboriginal decent (14). This is a valuable source to the research topic because it lists real initiatives taken by a public library to increase ethno-cultural awareness. In the article Finding the Underserved, Marc Futterman suggests that librarians should reassess their knowledge of the community. He argues that librarians rely on simplistic definitions of racial, ethnic, and class divisions that are of little help (Futterman 45). He concludes that librarians should develop more detailed and complex studies of their client population. This article is important to the topic addressed in this study because it offers constructive criticism of how librarians identify those being marketed.

The main objective of Paola Picco's research in Multicultural libraries' services and social integration: The case of public libraries in Montreal Canada is to gauge the role of Montreal public libraries in facilitating newcomer's integration into the city's culture. The author used a combined methodology of data collection and used both questionnaires and interviews with library professionals and other people in dedicated immigrant organizations. Picco identified twelve different services being offered in Montreal area public libraries for new Canadians (Picco 44). Picco stated that Montreal libraries offer useful resources to newcomers but lack an official objective or goal for providing these services as recommended by IFLA guidelines 54-55). The study offers examples in marketing library services to new Canadians and the location is more consistent in representing the cultural diversity found in Edmonton.

Services for Immigrants

In 2000 Calmer Chattoo published a study titled Reference Services to the International Adult Learner. The study focuses on international adult learners in academic institutions. The author provides some examples of instructional services offered in libraries. An emphasis is placed on the role of constant training of information professionals with the goal of being better equipped to deal with challenges associated with providing services to the patron group (Chattoo 355). Also provided are suggestions on how to make these students feel more comfortable in a North American library setting (355-357). The value of this study is the comprehensive strategy developed in outlining strategies to ensure the comfort of these patrons. In a similar study published in the same year, Daniel Leistman addresses the same topic. Reference Services and the International Adult Learner uses surveys, interviews, and focus groups to assess the needs of this particular category of patron (Leistman 370). The study discovered that there were a variety of different ways in which to address their information needs. This included specialized reference service, instruction in small groups, instruction services offered in the patron's native language, and peer assistance. Although these studies were conducted in an academic library the results are applicable when addressing the information needs of immigrants who are also students.

Dominic Hakim Silvo published recent study in 2006 which examines information needs and seeking behaviour of immigrant Sudanese youth in London Ontario. He concluded that these information needs were focused on practical information rather than recreational. The main information need of the group was academic in nature. There was also a need for information in seeking employment, health related issues, and how to cope with racism (Silvio 263). These conclusions were discovered through the use of focus groups, interviews, observation and the examination of patron records (259). Information from Silvio's study will be beneficial to this research in that in contains directly relevant information with respect to a specific immigrant population in a Canadian city.

In ESL Learning Resources and Services at the Canadian Public Library Chryss Mylopoulos examines resources in the Canadian Public Library and how services and programs facilitate those who are learning English as a second language. This study is one of the few found which examines services given by Canadian Public Libraries. In specific the author sends questionnaires assessing ESL services to libraries in Calgary, Edmonton, London, Toronto, Richmond and Vancouver. The author recognizes that there is a lack of literature on the management and delivery of ESL services. The informal questionnaire that was sent out was an effort to identify common practices and identify gaps in service delivery. The author recommends that Canadian Public Libraries develop a comprehensive service plan to maintain and encourage quality of service. Also, staff training in ESL collection development and patron interaction is recommended as standard management policy in libraries.

Public Library Resources Used in Immigrant Households in Public Libraries Journal by Susan Burke offers a quantitative survey study on the types of services appeal to people of various ethno-cultural backgrounds. Although this qualitative study is not using a questionnaire method to obtain data, there are many relevant questions and conclusions the article that may be helpful for the proposed interviews. A section her article titled Barriers to Immigrant Library Use offered different perspectives on the potential barriers to service for a recent immigrant that I have not considered. Examples like the fear of giving personal information for illegal immigrants, inconvenient library hours, and language barriers are all factors that I will have to take into account when constructing interview questions. Burke conceded that most of the studies done to examine these barriers and why they exist has been done in an American public library and focuses on Latino populations.

Barriers in Proving Services to Immigrants

In Reference services to the international adult learner: Understanding the barriers, Christopher Brown identifies characteristics in relevant immigration statistics in the United States. Based on these figures he outlines three major barriers in providing effective library services to new Americans. The first major barrier is language. Brown illustrates how complex this issue is by addressing interpretation of accent, lexicon and syntax. The second barrier he examines is cultural, and gives examples of how different cultures would behave, act, or learn differently in a specific situation. The last barrier Brown examines in technological. Due to socioeconomic disparity in the world, certain nations have less access to technology than others. Brown puts all three types of barriers into context by giving examples of how they are directly relevant to the library. Although this study wishes to find more specific barriers to servicing various ethno-cultural communities, having these general examples will aid in the construction of interview questions.

G. Mahesh, in the 2002 study titled Barriers to Marketing of Information Products and Services in Libraries. The author identifies a number of difference barriers to formulating an effective marketing strategy (Mahesh 35). The public library's goal of providing free or near-free service means that there is a lack of revenue to support professional marketing campaigns. Because of this there is also a barrier in properly assessing their community's needs. The author also suggests that librarians lack the public relations skills necessary to promote their own services and do not have sufficient man power to provide these services.(36-38) This perspective is unique and worth studying because it states that library service goals are hindering the proper marketing of service.

Caidi and Allard published a Canadian based study in 2005 which proposes that barriers hindering the social inclusion of newcomers in Canada are a result of a failure in the proper dissemination of information. They stress the importance of overcoming barriers in communication to inform immigrants of the value of the library. They state that this is a four step process.